Cyber Tutor

Term Definition
Cybersecurity Protection of information systems, programs, and data from unauthorized access, modification, and destruction
Hacker Someone who uses a computer to get unauthorized access to an information system, program, or data
Vulnerability A weakness in the system's security defenses that hackers can take advantage of
Exposure An weakness in a computer system that could become a vulnerability
Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) Database Existent vulnerabilities organized by products, vendor, severity, patches, etc listed at
Exploit Software used by hackers that takes advantage of a vulnerability to acquire unauthorized access to a system
Exploit-DB Database of Exploits Collection of exploits, made public to help security researchers, found at
Keylogging An attack method that hackers use to collect (log) the keys that are pressed on a keyboard so they can get information
Patching Updating your computer to an improved version of software that fixes bugs and vulnerabilities
Social Engineering Manipulating people psychologically to convince them to do specific actions or give away confidential information.
Phishing A social engineering attack where hackers pretend to be a trustworthy party to acquire your personal information such as your credit card details, passwords, etc
SMS Phishing (Smishing) A form of phishing using text messages
Voice Phishing (Vishing) A form of phishing using phone calls or voice messages
Whaling Targeting people of authority using social engineering
Watering Hole attack When a website of interest of a certain group is infected with malware to exploit the group
Denial of service (DoS) attack An attack that makes a user's system or network unavailable by sending a lot of traffic to the system (flooding) or sending data that makes the system crash
Botnet A group of internet-connected systems controlled by malware
Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) attack When a hacker uses a botnet to execute a DoS attack
Shoulder Surfing When someone is able to see a user's keyboard or screen; This allows them to gain information from the user
Malware A broad term for any malicious software such as viruses, ransomware, worm, etc. used by hackers
Computer Virus A type of malware that attaches itself to a program and runs when the program is launched
Computer Worm Malware that replicates itself to spread from computer to computer
Ransomware A form of malware where the attacker locks the user out of their computer and demands a ransom from the user
Trojan Malware that is disguised as a helpful program that, once opened, can give the attacker access to your computer
Client-server network The server is a powerful computer that provides services to less powerful computers knows as clients
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) A network protocol used to transfer files between a client and server computer
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Used to define how messages are formatted and transmitted over the World Wide Web
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